Like every year, the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences and the Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel laureates 2022 in the categories of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, peace and economics.

This year highlights work related to Reconstruction of Neanderthal DNA after tens of thousands of years of extinction. The development of 'click' and bioorthogonal chemistry, and the entanglement of quantum states. 

Nobel Prize in Medicine 2022, Svante Pääbo

The Swedish biologist was recognized for his research work that brought to light the Neanderthal DNA, human fossils that allowed knowing the genome of extinct species. 

Dr. Pääbo heads the genetics department at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Germany. The academy highlighted his research for pioneering and achieving the almost impossible task of sequencing the genome of extinct species. His work helped  confirm that the Homo sapiens had sex and children with Neanderthals a thousand years ago, giving way to hybrid families that shared genes from both species.

This is the first time that the Nobel has recognized work on human evolution. 


Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Carolyn Bertozzi, Morten Meldal and Barry Sharples

The 3 chemists were honored for their contributions to the chemical 'click' or also called 'Lego' chemistry. This procedure allows the body's molecules to join together like Lego pieces.

This procedure was not initially possible with living cells, however, Professor Bertozzi got it. With this, researchers can bind living cells in a patient's body to make a drug go to the right place. 

In the year 2000 Barry Sharples was the one who coined the concept of 'click' chemistry. For its part, Carolyn Bertozzi and Morten Meldal independently evolved the concept that today is the jewel of chemistry and nanotechnology. 


Nobel Prize in Physics: Alain Aspect, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger

The academy highlighted innovative experiments on the entanglement of quantum states. This science studies nature on small scales. 

The 3 physicists have carried out innovative experiments that have allowed the creation of new technologies based on quantum information. These experiments have helped to understand that 2 or more particles in an entangled state they are linked so that what happens to one particle happens to the other, even if they are separated.

The Swedish academy juries stressed that this type of experiment is enabling rapid development in secure information transfer, quantum computing and sensing technology. 


Nobel Laureates in Economics, Literature and Peace

El Nobel Peace Prize was handed over to human rights organizations in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Highlighted the work of Ales Bialiatski, human rights defender from Belarus, to the Russian human rights organization Memorial and the Ukrainian human rights organization Center for Civil Liberties.

In the category of Economy, the award was given to American economists Ben S. Bernanke, Douglas W. Diamond, and Philip H. Dybvig for their research on banks and the financial crisis. 

Finally, the Nobel Prize for Literature it was for the french writer annie ernaux. Recognized for her stories related to topics such as European autofiction, sociology, feminism and social commitment. It is the first time that a French author has received the award.

Main photo: Twitter