American theoretical physicist Lee Smolin once said that at heart scientists are lucky people, and Alexander Fleming may agree with that. If not for luck, chance or serendipity we would not have penicillin or it would not have been possible to send an object to the Moon for the first time at the time it was made and the way it was made. However, not everything has been a matter of luck, as men and women throughout history have worked hard for the benefit of humanity and knowledge. As the French biologist Claude Bernard said, «Art is me; science is us ». 

These are some of the characters, events and dates that star in the history of science in September.

When? What happened? Who, how and when?
September 1, 1988 American physicist Luis Álvarez dies Luis Álvarez was a physicist and Nobel Prize winner in Physics in 1968. Among other things, he was a co-discoverer of the east-west effect of cosmic rays, designer of the first linear proton accelerator, and discoverer of tritium radioactivity. Despite his great contributions, this famous physicist is remembered for the meteorite hypothesis as the cause of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction that wiped out most of the dinosaurs.
2 September 1993 The end of the space race This day marked a before and after in matters of space cooperation. The American Al Gore and the Russian Viktor Chernomyrdin joined forces and for the first time the 2 main space agencies of the moment collaborated and made the development of the International Space Station possible.
3 September 1971 The second Viking lands on Mars Before the appearance of rover, NASA had already sent some machines to the red planet. It was a program called Viking, which sent 2 unmanned missions in order to carry out the first studies of biological materials on Mars. The Viking Lander II it was the second space probe to successfully land on Mars and took the first pictures of the planet's surface. 
5 September 1975 Alice Catherine Evans passes away Evans was an American microbiologist who discovered that Brucella was the cause of the bacterial infection brucellosis (or Maltese fever, rippling fever) and its transmission in both cattle and humans. He published the results of his inquiries in the magazine Journal of Infectious Diseases in 1918, a journal that he had founded in 1904 and that today is a reference in the field of infectious diseases and clinical practice. One of the recommendations that Evans gave, through the conclusions of his research, was to pasteurize milk to protect humans from the microorganism originating from cows. In subsequent years, other investigations reached the same conclusions and it was confirmed that Brucella was the bacterium that causes brucellosis in animals and Maltese fever in humans.
5 September 1977 Voyager 1 probe goes into the unknown This probe and its twin, Voyager 2, were launched by NASA to explore Jupiter and Sarturno. The probes have managed to go further than expected and are about to leave the heliosphere, a spatial region of our solar system that marks the border with interstellar space.
September 6 Birth of 3 greats This day is well remembered for the birth of three greats of research. On September 6, 1766, John Dalton was born, a British scientist who developed the atomic theory of matter. On September 6, 1860, the American sociologist and Nobel Peace Prize winner was born in 1931 Jane addams. Finally, on September 6, 1943, Richard Roberts was born, a British chemist and Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry in 1993 for his discovery of disrupted genes.
10 September 1749 Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marchioness of Châtele, dies Better known as Émilie du Châtelet, she was a French mathematician and physicist who translated Newton's postulates into French and spread his theories. Du Châtelet's parents offered her an education in Latin, Greek, German, music, and theater, something that women rarely received at the time. She also met Voltaire himself, who motivated her to translate Isaac Newton. Émilie Du Châtelet's translation is still valid today.
12 September 1897 Irène Joliot-Curie is born She was a Parisian chemist and physicist famous for the discovery of new radioactive isotopes. In 1935 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Frédéric, for the discovery of artificial radioisotopes. Scientists achieved this milestone by bombarding elements such as boron, aluminum or magnesium with alpha particles (helium nuclei). With this, a field of application in physics, chemistry and research in general was opened. It is considered that Irène Joliot-Curie changed the way of seeing chemistry and the relationship between the different elements.
12 September 1921 100 years since the birth of Stanislaw Lem, author of the novel 'Solaris' Lem was a Polish writer considered one of the greatest exponents of the science fiction genre and one of the few non-English-speaking authors to achieve world fame. Many of his works were transferred to the cinema and explore philosophical themes that involve new technologies, the nature of intelligence and the possibilities of communication and understanding between rational beings. According Sinc AgencyLem also proposes some elements of the limitations of human knowledge and the place of humanity in the universe.
12 September 1940 Lascaux paintings are discovered 5 young students who are exploring the Lascaux grotto, in France, discover a series of cave paintings made up of numerous animals that were painted more than 16.000 years ago.
13 September 1959 Luna 2 becomes the first man-made artifact to reach the Moon The Soviet probe reached the area of ​​the Moon known as Mare Imbrium and is considered to be part of the first successful lunar mission. The probe was destined to crash into the Moon and it did.
17 September 1683 Van Leeuwenhoek lays the foundations for experimental microbiology Anton van Leeuwenhoek became the first person to describe what a bacterium looks like when viewed under a microscope. He was not a researcher, but a cloth merchant, surveyor, wine taster, and civil servant from his hometown, Delft. The Dutchman managed to make lenses and build his own simple microscopes, which managed to magnify things more than 200 times. In addition to being the first to describe bacteria, he also observed fossils of foraminifera, blood cells and animal sperm, nematodes and rotifers under the microscope.
19 September 1984 Joe Kittinger crosses the Atlantic in a balloon. The aviator and officer of the United States Air Force became the first person to cross the Atlantic Ocean alone in a gas balloon.
23 September 1846 Neptune is discovered The German astronomer Johan Galle discovered Neptune an hour after starting his search following the indications of Urbain-Jean-Joseph Le Verrier, a French mathematician who had already calculated the size and position of an unknown planet.
28 September 1895 Louis Pasteur passes away Pasteurizer is considered the founder of microbiology. His studies made it possible to establish that microorganisms are not generated spontaneously from inorganic matter; this made it possible to understand how infections occur. He also developed a method to destroy dangerous bacteria in a liquid at a certain temperature, something that today is known as pasteurization. Pasteur devised various vaccines against diphtheria, cholera, yellow fever, tuberculosis, among others.
28 September 1928 They present penicillin Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming came up with the penicillin after accidentally letting mold grow in a crop. Fleming discovered that a substance was produced that killed various disease-causing bacteria. The mold fungus, called Penicillium notatum, allowed the development of a set of antibiotics that are used to treat infections that, until their discovery, could be fatal. Later, Fleming and other scientists turned the fungus into a useful treatment.
30 September 1887 Nora Stanton: America's First Certified Civil Engineer This day the world saw the birth of Nora Stanton, the first woman in the United States to earn a degree in civil engineering and the first junior member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Stanton wrote an article on the Washington DC water supply that was a reference for studies on the transport of solids in liquids for more than 50 years.

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