La Unesco affirms that science is the greatest collective enterprise of society. Science allows us to develop drugs that alleviate and cure our conditions, it gives us the possibility of developing devices that provide us with energy and illuminate our lives, and in this pandemic science has been especially important for the development of vaccines.

Many men and women have contributed to science with inventions, experiments, and theories that make the world a better place. From Alfred Nobel and his awards to Louise Bates Ames and her studies on child development. These are the characters, inventions and dates that science stars in in October.

When?What happened?Who, how and when?
October 1, 1958Inauguration of NASAThis day, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA in English) opened its doors and accelerated work on human and robotic space flights. His first high-profile program was Project Mercury, an initiative to see if humans could live in space.
4 October 1947Max Planck passes awayHe was a German physicist and mathematician, considered the founder of quantum theory. In fact, he was awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in Physics for his formulation of this theory. The German also discovered the spectral law of black body radiation and in 1900 he presented to the German Physical Society the so-called Planck constant, used to calculate the energy of a photon. 
4 October 1957The USSR launches the first Sputnik On this day, the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) launched the first artificial satellite in history. The launch was made from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Sputnik 1 was the first of 4 satellites that were part of the USSR's Sputnik program, and it was planned as a contribution to the International Geophysical Year. This satellite was a 58 centimeter diameter aluminum sphere that carried 4 long and thin antennas. The device managed to complete 1.440 orbits of the Earth and its mission lasted 3 months. 
10 October 1731Henry Cavendish is bornCavendish was a British and French physicist and chemist known for the Cavendish experiment. With this experiment it was possible to determine the universal gravitation constant. As a chemist he was recognized for the discovery of hydrogen and the composition of water. At age 40, after the death of his father and uncle, he became one of the richest people in the world. The scientist dedicated all his capital to science, buying laboratory equipment and creating a library that he made available to anyone. Henry Cavendish also studied the composition of the atmosphere and found quantitative values ​​close to those currently accepted. He was never married and it is said that he never spoke to a woman, so he communicated with his housekeeper through letters. 
12 October 1850Pennsylvania's first women's medical college opens. The Pennsylvania College of Women's Medicine was founded in 1850 and was the second medical institution in the world established to train women in medicine. The idea of ​​creating this faculty arose in a meeting of 5 doctors, among them Bartholomew Fussel. Fussel was an abolitionist of slavery in the United States and advocated for the careers of women in medicine. In 1867, the university changed its name to Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania. Among the outstanding female students of the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania are Anandibai Gopal Joshi, India's first doctor; Rebecca Cole, second African-American physician in the United States; Halle Tanner Dillon, Alabama's first African-American physician; Susan Hayhurts, the first woman to receive a pharmacy degree in the United States, and other women. 
October 12 Ada Lovelace Day El ada lovelace day is an international celebration dedicated to the achievements of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (Stem). Its celebration takes place on the second Tuesday of October of each year and aims to increase the profile of women in Stem. This celebration seeks to encourage girls to carry out Stem races and, in turn, support women who already work in these fields. 
14 October 1947The sound barrier is broken for the first time aboard a BellCharles Elwood Yaeger was an American pilot recognized for being the first man to officially break the sound barrier. On October 14, 1947, Elwood flew the experimental Bell X-1 aircraft at Mach 1 speed. (the speed of sound, which is 340 meters per second) and at an altitude of 13.716 meters.
15 October 2003 China launches its first manned space missionShenzhou 5 was the first manned mission to space sent by China. The mission was launched into space by the Chinese Long March 2F space rocket. Thanks to this mission, China became the third nation to send humans into space.
16 October 1846Pain-free surgery is born This day began the modern era of anesthesia in Boston, United States, when Dr. William Thomas Green Morton gave a public demonstration by anesthetizing a patient with the vapors of sulfuric ether. At this time it is considered as the birth of modern anesthesiology. 
16 October 1928Eliza Maria Mosher passes awayShe was an American physician, writer, and educator recognized for pioneering an educational approach to health and fitness. Mosher she was the first dean of Women at the University of Michigan and the first professor at that university. This scientist focused on the field of research on the medical aspects of posture and developed an orthopedic chair for children. 
21 October 1879Edison introduces the electric light bulbThomas Alva Edison It took 14 months of research, an investment of $ 40.000 at the time, and more than 1.200 experiments to present the electric light bulb. The announcement was made in his laboratory in New Jersey, United States, where several viewers saw the light bulb glow for the first time for 48 hours straight. Edison was not the first person to create an incandescent light bulb; however, his invention lasted longer and required less energy than the others.
21 October 1833Alfred Nobel is bornHe was a Swedish chemist and inventor, who is famous for the development of dynamite and for the awards that bear his name. In 1866 he created a safer form of nitroglycerin which he called dynamite or smokeless gunpowder. Thanks to his inventions, Nobel He managed to create a fortune that he invested in a fund to award prizes for the most original and interesting discoveries in various fields of scientific and humanistic knowledge. The Nobel Prizes were awarded for the first time in 1901 and, in honor of Alfred Nobel, the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences, known as the Nobel Prize in Economics, was created. 
22 October 1965Apollo 7 safely returns to EarthApollo 7 was the fourth American Apollo program mission. It was the first manned mission of the Apollo project and is remembered for the constant anger of the crew with the ground control. After 10 days of mission, the Apollo 7 landing took place about 15 kilometers from the planned place.
22 October 1975The Venera 9 probe lands on VenusThis Soviet space probe was the first spacecraft to send an image of another planet to Earth. Make click here to view the photo. The probe was composed of an orbiter and a lander that fell off on October 22, 1975. On this day the probe detached from its orbiter and landed near the zenith of the Sun on the surface of Venus. 
28 October 1914The American 'father of geology' is born William James Maclure was an American geologist, botanist, explorer, and educator who is considered the 'father of geology' in America. Maclure published numerous articles in geology, economics, pedagogy, and politics. In 1908 he conducted a geological survey of the Mississippi River alone and traversed a vast region of the states of Maine and Georgia. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society, the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and other associations. 
October 29, 1996The pioneer of child psychology is born Louise Bates Ames was a child development and educational psychologist of American origin. She is recognized as the pioneer of child development studies and introduced the theory of the stages of child development into popular discourse. Ames authored several internationally acclaimed books on the stages of child development and even hosted a television program on the subject. Ames's work found that children go through clear, age-differentiated stages of development. She showed that various age groups display unique behavior patterns.
30 October 1938'War of the Worlds' airs on CBSThe famous science fiction novel by HG Wells is the first known description of an alien invasion of Earth. It was first published in 1898, but it was until 1938 that it was made the famous adaptation of Orson Welles. This adaptation made some changes to the original plot. It was broadcast as an urgent newscast format, causing panic among the citizens of New York and New Jersey. Many people believed that an alien invasion of our planet was actually taking place. This reaction contributed to Welles' success, although he had to publicly apologize for what happened. 
31 October 1711It was created Laura bassiShe was an Italian philosopher, professor and scientist who published more than 30 scientific papers. Much of his work in science was related to Newtonian and Cartesian physics, being one of the first people to explain Newtonian physics in Italy. 
31 October 2000The first crew of the International Space Station takes offExpedition 1 was the first long stay on the International Space Station by a crew, which consisted of the American William Shepherd and the Russians Yuri Guidzenko and Sergei Krikaliov. The astronauts and cosmonauts traveled aboard the Russian Soyuz TM-31 spacecraft.

Main picture Gerd Altmann en Pixabay